People living some 8,000 years ago in regions along the Weihe River produced the earliest painted pottery works in northern China. Later, painted pottery appeared widely in the Neolithic cultures in the areas along the Yellow River, Liaohe River, and Yangtze River, and the most creative examples were those made in prehistoric cultures developed in Gansu province on the upper reaches of the Yellow River. The time-honored painted pottery culture of Gansu Province lasted some 5,500 years, providing a glimpse into the numerous Neolithic and bronze-age cultures. Most painted pottery exhibitions are planned and designed from the perspectives of archaeology and history. The exhibition, from a different perspective, emphasizes the art characteristics, evolution rules and cultural meanings of painted pottery in different periods in the contexts of archaeology and history.