One of the permanent exhibitions hosted by the National Museum of China, Ancient China is on display in altogether ten galleries. Using a large number of valuable cultural relics, it gives a complete picture of the long Chinese history from the prehistoric times to the late Qing Dynasty and shows in a comprehensive way the vitality and continuous evolution of Chinese civilization. It also demonstrates the historical process of building a multi-ethnic country by Chinese people from different ethnic groups, their splendid political, economic, and cultural achievements, and their contributions to human civilization.

This exhibition incorporates advantages of its forerunner, the exhibition entitled General Chinese History, and draws on the latest academic findings as well as advice from renowned Chinese experts. Ancient China features 2,520 objects, including 2,026 cultural relics, among them 521 being first-rate. These objects are grouped into eight sections: "Prehistoric Times", "Xia, Shang, and Western Zhou Dynasties", "Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods", "Qin and Han Dynasties", "Three Kingdoms, Jin, and Southern and Northern Dynasties", "Sui, Tang, and Five Dynasties", "Liao, Song, Xixia, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties", and "Ming and Qing Dynasties".